编程实现C语言strlen()函数的功能,并分析算法优劣

C语言strlen()函数返回的是字符串的长度,不包括’\0’。其实编程思路很简单,很自然想到如下写法:

size_t strlen(const char *s)
{
	size_t len = 0;
	
	for(; *s != '\0'; ++s)
	{
		len++;
	}
	
	return len;
}

如果考虑代码的健壮性,可以加上断言“assert(s != NULL);”。
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以上代码正确性是肯定的,但是效率不高,因为每次循环都执行了“len++”。P J. PLAUCER的《THE STANDARD C LIBRARY》书中给出的算法如下,明显比上述代码高效得多。


size_t strlen(const char *s)
{
	const char *sc;
	for(sc = s; *sc != '\0'; ++sc);
	return (sc - s) ;
}

strlen()函数还有更牛的算法,请看glibc的源码,顺便膜拜一下大师~

/* Copyright (C) 1991-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   This file is part of the GNU C Library.
   Written by Torbjorn Granlund (tege@sics.se),
   with help from Dan Sahlin (dan@sics.se);
   commentary by Jim Blandy (jimb@ai.mit.edu).

   The GNU C Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
   modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
   version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

   The GNU C Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
   Lesser General Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
   License along with the GNU C Library; if not, see
   <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.  */

#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#undef strlen

/* Return the length of the null-terminated string STR.  Scan for
   the null terminator quickly by testing four bytes at a time.  */
size_t
strlen (const char *str)
{
  const char *char_ptr;
  const unsigned long int *longword_ptr;
  unsigned long int longword, himagic, lomagic;

  /* Handle the first few characters by reading one character at a time.
     Do this until CHAR_PTR is aligned on a longword boundary.  */
  for (char_ptr = str; ((unsigned long int) char_ptr
			& (sizeof (longword) - 1)) != 0;
       ++char_ptr)
    if (*char_ptr == '\0')
      return char_ptr - str;

  /* All these elucidatory comments refer to 4-byte longwords,
     but the theory applies equally well to 8-byte longwords.  */

  longword_ptr = (unsigned long int *) char_ptr;

  /* Bits 31, 24, 16, and 8 of this number are zero.  Call these bits
     the "holes."  Note that there is a hole just to the left of
     each byte, with an extra at the end:

     bits:  01111110 11111110 11111110 11111111
     bytes: AAAAAAAA BBBBBBBB CCCCCCCC DDDDDDDD

     The 1-bits make sure that carries propagate to the next 0-bit.
     The 0-bits provide holes for carries to fall into.  */
  himagic = 0x80808080L;
  lomagic = 0x01010101L;
  if (sizeof (longword) > 4)
    {
      /* 64-bit version of the magic.  */
      /* Do the shift in two steps to avoid a warning if long has 32 bits.  */
      himagic = ((himagic << 16) << 16) | himagic;
      lomagic = ((lomagic << 16) << 16) | lomagic;
    }
  if (sizeof (longword) > 8)
    abort ();

  /* Instead of the traditional loop which tests each character,
     we will test a longword at a time.  The tricky part is testing
     if *any of the four* bytes in the longword in question are zero.  */
  for (;;)
    {
      longword = *longword_ptr++;

      if (((longword - lomagic) & ~longword & himagic) != 0)
	{
	  /* Which of the bytes was the zero?  If none of them were, it was
	     a misfire; continue the search.  */

	  const char *cp = (const char *) (longword_ptr - 1);

	  if (cp[0] == 0)
	    return cp - str;
	  if (cp[1] == 0)
	    return cp - str + 1;
	  if (cp[2] == 0)
	    return cp - str + 2;
	  if (cp[3] == 0)
	    return cp - str + 3;
	  if (sizeof (longword) > 4)
	    {
	      if (cp[4] == 0)
		return cp - str + 4;
	      if (cp[5] == 0)
		return cp - str + 5;
	      if (cp[6] == 0)
		return cp - str + 6;
	      if (cp[7] == 0)
		return cp - str + 7;
	    }
	}
    }
}
libc_hidden_builtin_def (strlen)

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